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For the next century the Krupps continued to acquire property and became involved in municipal politics in Essen.
By the midth-century, Friedrich Jodocus Krupp, Arndt's great-great-grandson, headed the Krupp family.
In , he married Helene Amalie Ascherfeld another of Arndt's great-great-grandchildren ; Jodocus died six years later, which left his widow to run the business: a family first.
The Widow Krupp greatly expanded the family's holdings over the decades, acquiring a fulling mill, shares in four coal mines , and in an iron forge located on a stream near Essen.
In the progenitor of the modern Krupp firm, Friedrich Krupp , began his commercial career at age 19 when the Widow Krupp appointed him manager of the forge.
Friedrich's father, the widow's son, had died 11 years previously; since that time, the widow had tutored the boy in the ways of commerce, as he seemed the logical family heir.
Unfortunately, Friedrich proved too idiotic for his own good, and quickly ran the formerly profitable forge into the ground. The widow soon had to sell it away.
In , the widow died, and in what would prove a disastrous move, left virtually all the Krupp fortune and property to Friedrich.
Newly enriched, Friedrich decided to discover the secret of cast crucible steel. Benjamin Huntsman , a clockmaker from Sheffield , had pioneered a process to make crucible steel in , but the British had managed to keep it secret, forcing others to import steel.
When Napoleon began his blockade of the British Empire see Continental System , British steel became unavailable, and Napoleon offered a prize of four thousand francs to anyone who could replicate the British process.
This prize piqued Friedrich's interest. He realized he would need a large facility with a power source for success, and so he built a mill and foundry on the Ruhr River , which unfortunately proved an unreliable stream.
Friedrich spent a significant amount of time and money in the small, waterwheel -powered facility, neglecting other Krupp business, but in he was able to produce smelted steel.
He died in Essen, 8 October age His father's death forced him to leave school at the age of fourteen and take on responsibility for the steel works in companionship with his mother Therese Krupp.
Prospects were daunting: his father had spent a considerable fortune in the attempt to cast steel in large ingots, and to keep the works going the widow and family lived in extreme frugality.
The young director laboured alongside the workmen by day and carried on his father's experiments at night, while occasionally touring Europe trying to promote Krupp products and make sales.
It was during a stay in England that young Alfried became enamored of the country and adopted the English spelling of his name. For years, the works made barely enough money to cover the workmen's wages.
Then, in , Alfred's brother Hermann invented the spoon-roller —which Alfred patented , bringing in enough money to enlarge the factory, steel production, and cast steel blocks.
In Krupp made his first cannon of cast steel. Krupp's exhibits caused a sensation in the engineering world, and the Essen works became famous. In , another successful innovation, no-weld railway tyres , began the company's primary revenue stream, from sales to railways in the United States.
Alfred enlarged the factory and fulfilled his long-cherished scheme to construct a breech-loading cannon of cast steel. He strongly believed in the superiority of breech-loaders , on account of improved accuracy and speed, but this view did not win general acceptance among military officers, who remained loyal to tried-and-true muzzle-loaded bronze cannon.
Alfred soon began producing breech loading howitzers , one of which he gifted to the Prussian court. Indeed, unable to sell his steel cannon, Krupp gave it to the King of Prussia , who used it as a decorative piece.
The king's brother Wilhelm , however, realized the significance of the innovation. After he became regent in , Prussia bought its first steel cannon from Krupp, which became the main arms manufacturer for the Prussian military.
The Franco-Prussian war was in part a contest of "Kruppstahl" versus bronze cannon. The success of German artillery spurred the first international arms race , against Schneider-Creusot in France and Armstrong in England.
Krupp was able to sell, alternately, improved artillery and improved steel shielding to countries from Russia to Chile to Siam. In the Panic of , Alfred continued to expand, including the purchase of Spanish mines and Dutch shipping, making Krupp the biggest and richest company in Europe but nearly bankrupting it.
He was bailed out with a 30 million Mark loan from a consortium of banks arranged by the Prussian State Bank. In and Krupp held competitions known as Völkerschiessen , which were firing demonstrations of cannon for international buyers.
These were held in Meppen , at the largest proving ground in the world; privately owned by Krupp. He took on 46 nations as customers. At the time of his death in , he had 75, employees, including 20, in Essen.
In his lifetime, Krupp manufactured a total of 24, guns; 10, for the German government and 13, for export. Krupp established the Generalregulativ as the firm's basic constitution.
The company was a sole proprietorship , inherited by primogeniture , with strict control of workers. Krupp demanded a loyalty oath, required workers to obtain written permission from their foremen when they needed to use the toilet and issued proclamations telling his workers not to concern themselves with national politics.
In return, Krupp provided social services that were unusually liberal for the era, including " colonies " with parks, schools and recreation grounds - while the widows' and orphans' and other benefit schemes insured the men and their families in case of illness or death.
Essen became a large company town and Krupp became a de facto state within a state , with "Kruppianer" as loyal to the company and the Krupp family as to the nation and the Hohenzollern family.
Krupp's paternalist strategy was adopted by Bismarck as government policy, as a preventive against Social Democratic tendencies, and later influenced the development and adoption of Führerprinzip by Adolf Hitler.
The Krupp social services program began about , when it was found that there were not sufficient houses in the town for firm employees, and the firm began building dwellings.
By ten houses were ready for foremen, and in the first houses for workingmen were built in Alt Westend. Neu Westend was built in and By , houses were provided, many being given rent free to widows of former workers.
A cooperative society was founded in which became the Consum-Anstalt. Profits were divided according to amounts purchased.
Bath houses were provided and employees received free medical services. Technical and manual training schools were provided.
Krupp proclaimed he wished to have "a man come and start a counter-revolution " against Jews, socialists and liberals. In some of his odder moods, he considered taking the role himself.
According to historian William Manchester , his great grandson, Krupp would interpret these outbursts as a prophecy fulfilled by the coming of Hitler.
Krupp's marriage was not a happy one. His wife Bertha not to be confused with their granddaughter , was unwilling to remain in polluted Essen in Villa Hügel , the mansion which Krupp designed.
She spent most of their married years in resorts and spas, with their only child, a son. After Krupp's death in , his only son, Friedrich Alfred , carried on the work.
The father had been a hard man, known as "Herr Krupp" since his early teens. Friedrich Alfred was called "Fritz" all his life, and was strikingly dissimilar to his father in appearance and personality.
He was a philanthropist, a rarity amongst Ruhr industrial leaders. Part of his philanthropy supported the study of eugenics.
Fritz was a skilled businessman, though of a different sort from his father. Fritz was a master of the subtle sell, and cultivated a close rapport with the Kaiser, Wilhelm II.
Under Fritz's management, the firm's business blossomed further and further afield, spreading across the globe. He focused on arms manufacturing, as the US railroad market purchased from its own growing steel industry.
Fritz Krupp authorized many new products that would do much to change history. In Krupp developed nickel steel , which was hard enough to allow thin battleship armor and cannon using Nobel's improved gunpowder.
In , Krupp bought Gruson in a hostile takeover. It became Krupp-Panzer and manufactured armor plate and ships' turrets. In Rudolf Diesel brought his new engine to Krupp to construct.
In Krupp bought Germaniawerft in Kiel , which became Germany's main warship builder and built the first German U-boat in Fritz married Magda and they had two daughters: Bertha — and Barbara — ; the latter married Tilo Freiherr von Wilmowsky — in Fritz was arrested on 15 October by Italian police at his retreat on the Mediterranean island of Capri , where he enjoyed the companionship of forty or so adolescent Italian boys.
He had a subsequent publicity disaster and was found dead in his chambers not long after. It was alleged suicide, but foul play was suspected and details of the event were vague.
His wife was institutionalized for insanity. Upon Fritz's death, his teenage daughter Bertha inherited the firm. In , the firm formally incorporated as a joint-stock company , Fried.
Krupp Grusonwerk AG. However, Bertha owned all but four shares. Kaiser Wilhelm II felt it was unthinkable for the Krupp firm to be run by a woman.
By imperial proclamation at the wedding, Gustav was given the additional surname "Krupp," which was to be inherited by primogeniture along with the company.
In , Gustav bought Hamm Wireworks to manufacture barbed wire. In , Krupp began manufacturing stainless steel. The company had invested worldwide, including in cartels with other international companies.
Essen was the company headquarters. In Germany jailed a number of military officers for selling secrets to Krupp, in what was known as the "Kornwalzer scandal.
Gustav led the firm through World War I , concentrating almost entirely on artillery manufacturing, particularly following the loss of overseas markets as a result of the Allied blockade.
Vickers of England naturally suspended royalty payments during the war Krupp held the patent on shell fuses , but back-payment was made in In , the German government seized Belgian industry and conscripted Belgian civilians for forced labor in the Ruhr.
These were novelties in modern warfare and in violation of the Hague Conventions , to which Germany was a signatory. During the war, Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft produced 84 U-boats for the German navy, as well as the Deutschland submarine freighter, intended to ship raw material to Germany despite the blockade.
In the Allies named Gustav a war criminal , but the trials never proceeded. After the war, the firm was forced to renounce arms manufacturing.
Gustav attempted to reorient to consumer products, under the slogan "Wir machen alles! The company laid off 70, workers but was able to stave off Socialist unrest by continuing severance pay and its famous social services for workers.
The company opened a dental hospital to provide steel teeth and jaws for wounded veterans. It received its first contract from the Prussian State railway, and manufactured its first locomotive.
In , the Ruhr Uprising occurred in reaction to the Kapp Putsch. Krupp's factory in Essen was occupied, and independent republics were declared, but the German Reichswehr invaded from Westphalia and quickly restored order.
Later in the year, Britain oversaw the dismantling of much of Krupp's factory, reducing capacity by half and shipping industrial equipment to France as war reparations.
In the hyperinflation of , the firm printed Kruppmarks for use in Essen, which was the only stable currency there.AntLux 4FT LED Flush Mount Puff Lights 60W, Lumens, K Neutral White, 48 Inch Integrated Low Profile Flushmount Linear LED Cloud Ceiling Light Fixture for Kitchen, Laundry, ETL Certified. Vera Jeske Younan, Editorial Department: 2 Days in Paris. Check out our editors' picks for our favorite Prime Video original movies and TV series, including "The Boys," "Fleabag," and actors-academy.com the full list. Vera steht für. Vera (Vorname) Vera (Sängerin) (* ), österreichische Sängerin Vera (Mondkrater) () Vera, Asteroid; Titel Vera (), brasilianischer Film von Sérgio Toledo Vera (), deutscher Film von Waldemar Oldenburger Vera (), US-amerikanischer Film von Dante Iannetta Vera (Fernsehsendung), Talkshow des ORF mit Vera Russwurm Vera – bei , Talkshow des ORF mit Vera.